Resources

Acknowledgements. 

The Rapid Urbanism Pattern Language does not only include (i) physical planning and design tools but also (ii) economic and financial strategies, (iii) social organization and administrative policies, and (iv) legal and regulatory patterns. The work heavily relies on outstanding work of other practitioners and scholars, particularly but not limited to: Reinhard Goethert/SIGUS/MIT (incremental housing, settlement design, slum upgrading and participation), Deidre Schmidt/One Roof Global and the Affordable Housing Institute (housing microfinance and housing finance), Martim Smolka/Lincoln Institute, Carlos Morales-Schechinger/Institut for Housing Studies and Claudio Acioly/UN-Habitat (urban fiscal and planning policies, particularly land value capture and land value taxation), Bimal Patel and Shirley Ballaney, Environmental Planning Collaborative (conceptual work on land management and urban planning reform, particularly Land Pooling and Land Readjustment), Bijal Brahm Bhatt/Mahila Housing SEWA Trust (urban poverty alleviation, incremental home improvement, slum upgrading, basic services and housing microfinance) and the larger WIEGO and SDI/ACHR/ACCA community networks on community-driven inclusive urban development (particularly life-affirming livelihoods and curative and preventive precedence-setting housing projects).

Lastly, I want to thank the Loeb Fellowship Program, the Graduate School of Design, the Kennedy School of GovernmentHarvard University, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, as well as the Special Interest Group in Urban Settlement, the Department of Architecture and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for the unparalleled resources made available to me when developing the Rapid Urbanism framework that is rooted in and inspired by the professional experience and intellectual knowledge of many. Without this support, I would not only lack the ability to dedicate time but also the access to invaluable information, without which this work could never be done.

Further below, this  page contains information on useful resources, sorted by key urban development issues.

***** The Roots Of The Housing Problem *****

 

Urbanization                           

Investigate the global and regional trends of urbanization and its relationship with income and other indicators of your interest on www.gapminder.org.

UN-Habitat and UNESCAP (2008), Quick Guides for Policy Makers: Housing the Poor in Asian Cities, Volume 1 – Urbanization: The role the poor play in urban development (http://www.housing-the-urban-poor.net/Docs/QuickGuides/QG1-Urbanization.pdf

Emerging Cities, Agence française de développement, introduction, pp. 8-15 (www.isted.com/villesendevenir/anglais/villesendevenir_pdf/emergingcities.pdf)

UNFPA (2007), State of World Population 2007 – Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth, Introduction and Chapter 1, pp. 1-13 (www.unfpa.org/swp/2007/presskit/pdf/sowp2007_eng.pdf)

Nick Devas, Carole Rakodi (1993), The Urban Challenge and Planning and Managing Urban Development, chapters 1 and 2 in Managing Fast Growing Cities

 

Double Population, Triple Area – The Urban Land Challenge

UN-Habitat (2007). How to Develop a Pro-poor Land Policy: Process, Guide and Lessons. (PDF)

Emerging Cities, Agence française de développement (www.isted.com/villesendevenir/anglais/villesendevenir_pdf/emergingcities.pdf)

Shirley Ballaney, Bimal Patel, CK Koshi, Matt Nohn (2009), Reforming Urban Land Management in Gujarat, in Indian Infrastructure Report, pp. 176-189 (http://www.iitk.ac.in/3inetwork/html/reports/IIR2009/IIR_2009_Final_July%2009.pdf)

Shlomo Angel, Stephen C. Sheppard and Daniel L. Civco (2005), The Dynamics of Global Urban Expansion, Chapter 1 (You can ignore the parts where the talk specifically about their study…) (http://www4.citiesalliance.org/doc/resources/upgrading/urban-expansion/worldbankreportsept2005.pdf)

UN-Habitat and UNESCAP (2008), Quick Guides for Policy Makers: Housing the Poor in Asian Cities, Volume 3 – Land: A crucial element in housing the urban poor  (http://www.housing-the-urban-poor.net/Docs/QuickGuides/QG3-Land.pdf)

Michael Mattingly, Urban management intervention in urban land markets, in Nick Devas, Carole Rakodi (1993), Managing Fast Growing Cities, chapter 4, pp. 102-131

Lisa Redfield Peattie (1968), The View from the Barrio, Chapter 3: La Laja as Part of History, pp. 21-30

 

Infrastructure including Transportation

Shlomo Angel, Stephen C. Sheppard and Daniel L. Civco (2005), The Dynamics of Global Urban Expansion, Chapter 6 (http://www4.citiesalliance.org/doc/resources/upgrading/urban-expansion/worldbankreportsept2005.pdf)

Christopher Kost and Matthias Nohn (2011), Better Streets, Better Cities – A Street Design Manual for Urban India, Chapter 2.1 to 2.4

Shirley Ballaney and Bimal Patel (2009), Using the ‘Development Plan—Town Planning Scheme’ Mechanism to Appropriate Land and Build Urban Infrastructure, in Indian Infrastructure Report, pp. 190-204  (http://www.iitk.ac.in/3inetwork/html/reports/IIR2009/IIR_2009_Final_July%2009.pdf)

Jim Amos, Planning and managing urban services, in Nick Devas, Carole Rakodi (1993), Managing Fast Growing Cities, pp. 132-152

Douglas Pollard and Fanis Grammenos (2009), Beloved and Abandoned: A Platting Named Portland (http://www.planetizen.com/node/41290)

Michael Lewyn (2008), Culs-de-Sac and Grids: A Middle Ground (Or Two, Or Three) (http://www.planetizen.com/node/34763)

Christopher Alexander, Sra Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein with Max Jacobson, Ingrid Fiksdahl-King, Shlomo Angel (1977), A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (Hint: focus on patterns 8-20.)

 

The Urban Housing Challenge

John C. Turner (1968), Housing Priorities, Settlement Patterns, and Urban Development in Modernizing Countries, AIP Journal, November 1968, pp. 354-363. (Full version as PDF in the class material; or abstract here: http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/upgrading/issues-tools/issues/urban-structure.html)

GTZ (1987), ZOPP in Brief (about Objective-Oriented Project Planning)

UN-Habitat and UNESCAP (2008), Quick Guides for Policy Makers: Housing the Poor in Asian Cities, Volume 2 – Low-income Housing: Approaches to help the urban poor find adequate housing (http://www.housing-the-urban-poor.net/Docs/QuickGuides/QG2-LowIncome.pdf)

Lisa Redfield Peattie (1968), The View from the Barrio, Chapter 5: The Kinship Network, pp. 40-53,

Jorge E. Hardoy and David Satterthwaite (1989), Squatter Citizen: Life in the Urban Third World, Chapter 3: The Search for Shelter, pp.62-94

UN-Habitat and UNESCAP (2008), Quick Guides for Policy Makers: Housing the Poor in Asian Cities, Volume 7 –Rental Housing: A much neglected housing option for the poor (http://www.housing-the-urban-poor.net/Docs/QuickGuides/QG7-RentalHousing.pdf)

 

***** Improving Existing Slums *****

 

Living in Slums and Strategies for Improving Them

Lisa Redfield Peattie (1968), The View from the Barrio, Chapter 6: Social Structure and Social Action, pp. 54-70 (PDF)

Watch a movie at www.gapminder.org/videos/a-slum-insight/.

Read at least one of the stories of The Poor have a Name and a Story! Urban Poverty in Bangladesh. (www.urbanpovertyinbangladesh.blogspot.com/)

Un-Habitat (2002), Cities without Slums

Matthias Nohn, Bimal Patel, Rajendra Joshi, Shirley Ballaney, Slum Planning Schemes, Appendix I: Four Approaches towards Physical Slum Development, pp. 63-82 (PDF)

UN-Habitat and UNESCAP (2008), Quick Guides for Policy Makers: Housing the Poor in Asian Cities, Volume 6 –Community-based Organizations: The poor as agents of development (www.housing-the-urban-poor.net/Docs/QuickGuides/QG6-CommunityOrgs.pdf)

Read other chapters of Peattie’s book. Many of them were optional readings in previous class sections. They are quick and informative reads…

Vastu Shilpa Foundation (1984), How the Other Half Builds – Volume 1: Space

 

Slum Upgrading and Redevelopment

Lisa Redfield Peattie (1968), The View from the Barrio, Chapter 7: The Sewer Controversy: A Case History, pp. 71-90, (PDF)

Lisa Redfield Peattie (1968), The View from the Barrio, Chapter 5: The Kinship Network, pp. 40-53

UN-Habitat (2006) – Analytical Perspective of Pro-poor Slum Upgrading Frameworks (http://www.unhabitat.org/pmss/listItemDetails.aspx?publicationID=2291)

Vastu Shilpa Foundation (1984), How the Other Half Builds – Volume 2: Plots

Matthias Nohn (2007), Parivartan and Other Tools for Slum Upgrading in Ahmedabad, India (PDF)

 

***** Preventing The Surge Of New Slums *****

 

Incremental Housing

John FC Turner (1976), Housing by People, Chapter 3: The Value of Housing, pp. 51-72

Lisa Redfield Peattie (1968), The View from the Barrio, Chapter 11: Social Process and Economic Development, pp. 130-144,

John FC Turner (1976), Housing by People, Preface by Colin Ward, pp. 4-9 and the back cover

 

Site and Service Projects

Horacio Caminos and Reinhard Goethert (1978), Urbanization Primer, pp. 28-39, 165-173

If you are interested in the topic, I recommend that you purchase:
Forbes Davidson and Geoffrey Payne (2000), Urban Projects Manual: A guide to preparing upgrading and new development projects accessible to low-income groups, 2nd revised edition, Liverpool University Press
(http://books.google.de/books?id=WTVm4dm8dpcC&lpg=PP1&ots=INbJKx4lFE&dq=the%20urban%20projects%20manual&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true)

John FC Turner (1976), Housing by People, Chapter 6: Principles for Housing, pp. 102-112

John FC Turner (1976), Housing by People, Chapter 9: A Programme, pp. 153-162

Bruce Furgoson (2008), Market-based Models for Land Development for the Moderate/Low-income Majority, in Global Urban Development, Volume 4, Issue 2, November 2008

Nabeel Hamdi (1995), Housing without Houses: Participation, flexibility, enablement (paper copy available with faculty)

PADCO (1984). Site and Urban Design Handbook. Office of Housing and Urban Development, USAID. Washington, DC: USAID

 

***** Financial Implications *****

Finance and Microfinance

Stuart Rutherford  (1999), The Poor and Their Money: An essay about financial services for poor people, Chapter one: The Poor and Their Money, pp. 1-16  (http://www.uncdf.org/mfdl/readings/PoorMoney.pdf)

Somsook Boonyabancha, A Decade of Change: From the Urban Community Development Office to the Community Organization Development Institute in Thailand, chapter 2 in Diana Mitlin and David Satterthwaite, Empowering Squatter Citizen: Local Government, Civil Society and Urban Poverty Reduction, pp. 25-53

Bruce Ferguson, Peer Smets, Finance for incremental housing; current status and prospects for expansion, Habitat International, (Volume 34, Issue 3, July 2009)

UN-Habitat and UNESCAP (2008), Quick Guides for Policy Makers: Housing the Poor in Asian Cities, Volume 5 –Housing Finance: Ways to help the poor pay for housing (http://www.housing-the-urban-poor.net/Docs/QuickGuides/QG5-HousingFinance.pdf)

UN-Habitat (2005), Financing Urban Shelter, Global Report on Human Settlements, pp. 87-136, 147-162 (www.unhabitat.org/pmss/getElectronicVersion.aspx?nr=1818&alt=1)

The CEMEX Model in C.K. Prahalad (2006), The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid

UN-Habitat (2008). Housing for All – The Challenges of Affordability and Sustainability. (PDF)

 

***** Governance *****

Housing Rights, Evictions, and Tenure

UN-Habitat and UNESCAP (2008), Quick Guides for Policy Makers: Housing the Poor in Asian Cities, Volume 4 –Evictions: Alternatives to the whole-scale destruction of urban poor communities (www.housing-the-urban-poor.net/Docs/QuickGuides/QG4-Eviction.pdf)

Geoffrey Payne and Michael Majale (2004), Urban Housing Manual: Making Regulatory Frameworks Work for the Poor

UN-Habitat (2004), Pro-poor Land Management: Integrating Slums into City Planning Approaches

 

Participation

Patel, Joshi, Ballaney and Nohn  (2011). Slum Planning Schemes. In Environment and Urbanization Asia, Vol(2)1, London: Sage

Goethert – Action Planning for Cities. (1997). A Guide To Community Practice. West Sussex: Wiley.

Philip Misselwitz (2009). Rehabilitating Camp Cities: Community-Driven Planning for Urbanised Refugee Camps. Universität Stuttgart.

 

 

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